Rare earth elements the global supply chain congressional research service 1 introduction the concentration of rare earth elements rees production in china raises the important issue of supply vulnerability rees are used for many commercial applications including new energy. The supply chain for rare earth minerals includes extraction separation refining alloying and manufacturing humphries 2013 integrating the supply chain activities into the asm sector . World demand for rare earth elements was estimated at 136000 tons per year with global production around 133600 tons in 2010 the difference was covered by previously mined aboveground stocks world demand is projected to rise to at least 160000 tons annually by 2016 according to the industrial minerals company of australia. According to a new report rare earth elements ree and impact of a ban by china on global supply chain every industry and product imaginable uses and relies on these materials in the products that directly or indirectly power their supply chain and operations high tech semiconductor automotive aerospace and defense medical device appliances consumer electronics life sciences etc. Effect of rare earth elements ree ban policies by china on global supply chain the supply chain is a complex phenomenon and the resilience of a system is not solely dependent on physical disruptions but also on dynamic factors such as societal and geopolitical such as environmental regulation speculative market and export ban
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